Range of motion: most of these studies utilise the CROM instrument. This area of endeavour is used extensively in manual therapies as an aid in both diagnosis and rehabilitation uses. Determining the reliability of change in a person’s active range of motion following injury gives an objective point of reference for both patient and clinician, with respect to restoration of function.

A number of conditions (such as tinnitus, cervicogenic headache and whiplash) appear to have a relationship with altered active cervical ROM as does the general decline in function due to repeated trauma (as in playing some contact sports).

Areas of current interest include the effect that perceived sound (tinnitus) may have on neck range of motion (trial in collaboration with Audiology unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital)